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Epidemiological trends of gallbladder cancer in Australia between 1982 to 2018: A population-based study utilizing the Australian Cancer Database
Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
Published online February 23, 2022;
Copyright © 2022 The Korean Association of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

Taha Mollah1,3, Marc Chia1, Luke C. Wang2, Prasenjit Modak3, Kirby R. Qin2,4

1Department of General Surgery, St. Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia,
2Department of Surgery, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia,
3Department of Surgery, Swan Hill Hospital, Swan Hill, Australia,
4Department of Paediatrics, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
Correspondence to: Taha Mollah
Department of General Surgery, St Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, VIC 3065, Australia
Tel: +61-(03)-9231-2211, Fax: +61-(03)-9231-3399,
Received December 14, 2021; Revised January 17, 2022; Accepted January 17, 2022.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Backgrounds/Aims: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a rare neoplasm. The epidemiology of GBC has not been updated in Australia for over five decades.
Methods: Data of all Australian patients diagnosed with GBC at any age from 1982 to 2018 were identified from the Australian Cancer Database. Age-standardized rates were calculated and joinpoint analysis was performed to ascertain the trends of incidence and mortality of GBC.
Results: Between 1982 and 2018, there were 22,745 cases of GBC and 11,054 GBC-related deaths in Australia. There were three distinct periods showing changed incidence. Period 1 (1982–1995) was stable. Period 2 (1996–2006) showed reduced incidence in females (3.6 to 2.8/100,000; p < 0.01) and all Australians (3.7 to 2.8/100,000, p < 0.01). Period 3 (2006–2017) demonstrated significantly increased incidence in all groups (males: 2.7 to 4.0/100,000, p < 0.01; females: 2.8 to 3.5/100,000, p < 0.01; all Australians: 2.8 to 3.7/100,000, p < 0.01). Incidence between females and males had declined from 1.10 : 1 in 1982 to 0.87 : 1 in 2017. There was a 71% reduction in mortality (3.1 to 0.9/100,000; p < 0.01). Median age at diagnosis increased from 69.7 to 74.3 years for females and from 67.2 to 73.3 years for males. Increasing incidence in the 6th to 8th decade of life in males, compared to previous years, was noted.
Conclusions: Incidence, mortality, sex, and age of GBC have significantly changed in Australia since 1982. Rising incidence of GBC in Australia warrants further investigation.
Keywords : Australia; Epidemiology; Neoplasms; Incidence; Mortality


May 2022, 26 (2)
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