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Mirizzi syndrome: necessity for safe approach in dealing with diagnostic and treatment challenges
Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2017 Aug;21(3):122-30
Published online August 31, 2017
Copyright © 2017 Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg.

Bader Hamza Shirah1, Hamza Asaad Shirah2, and Khalid B Albeladi3

1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center / King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, 2Department of General Surgery, Al Ansar General Hospital, Medina, 3King Abdulaziz Medical City/King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Received March 4, 2017; Revised April 16, 2017; Accepted July 7, 2017.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Backgrounds/Aims: The challenging dilemma of Mirizzi syndrome for operating surgeons arises from the difficulty to diagnose it preoperatively, and approximately 50% of cases are diagnosed intraoperatively. In this study, we analysed the effectiveness of diagnostic modalities and treatment options in our series of Mirizzi syndrome. Methods: Patients had a preoperative or intraoperative diagnosis of Mirizzi syndrome, and were classified into three groups: Group 1: Incidental finding of Mirizzi syndrome intraoperatively (n=34). Group 2: Patients presented with jaundice, diagnosed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (n=17). Group 3: Patients diagnosed initially by ultrasound (n=13). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was conducted in all 49 patients with Cendes type I disease. Partial cholecystectomy, common bile duct exploration, repair of fistula and t-tube placement was conducted on eight patients with Cendes type II and five patients with Cendes type III. Partial cholecystectomy with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was con-ducted in two patients with Cendes type IV disease. Results: Sixty-four patients were diagnosed with Mirizzi syndrome. Morbidity rate was 3.1%. Mortality rate was 0%. Group 3 (patients diagnosed initially by ultrasound) had the best treat-ment outcome, the least morbidity, and the shortest hospital stay. Conclusions: Suspected cases of Mirizzi syndrome should not be underestimated. Difficulty in establishing preoperative diagnosis is the major dilemma. As it is mostly encountered intraoperatively, the approach should be careful and logical to identify the correct type of Mirizzi by a thorough diagnostic laparoscopy and thus, provide optimum treatment for the subtype to achieve the best outcome. (Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2017;21:122-130)
Keywords : Mirizzi syndrome; Gallbladder stone; Impacted gallstone; Cholecystocholedochal fistula; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Open cholecystectomy